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“Third Crusade” 820th Anniversary Series: Acre Surrenders July 12, 2011

Posted by rwf1954 in Acre, Conrad of Montferrat, crusades, history, Leopold of Austria, medieval period, Philip II of France, Richard the Lionheart, Saladin, the crusades, third crusade.
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(This post is the 29th of what will be approximately 70 posts following 820th anniversary highlights of what history now calls the “Third Crusade.” My novel, The Swords of Faith, tells the story of this legendary clash between Richard the Lionheart and Saladin.) 

*****

820 years ago today, Saladin’s forces at Acre finally surrendered the city to western Christian forces on the basis of terms negotiated between al-Mashtuh inside Acre, and Richard the Lionheart. It was a bitter defeat for Saladin who had fought to hold on to the city for nearly two years. It was not a dramatic victory for Richard, in that his forces did not take the city by storm after many attempts to do so. Events ebbed and flowed over the days leading up to the surrender:

  • July 3rd: French forces breached the wall at Acre but could not take the city.
  • July 4th: Richard rejected surrender terms from the Acre garrison that he thought were too lenient for a surrender after such a long siege.
  • July 5th: Saladin could not get forces under his command to carry out an order to attack the Christian camp. (With Saladin’s fragile coalition, this was not the last time he would face this problem.)
  • July 7th: A swimmer arrived with a last appeal from the defenders; if nothing could be done to relieve them, they would need to negotiate whatever terms were available.
  • July 11th: English/Pisan forces mounted an attack but could not take the city.

Saladin’s first reaction was to disavow the terms of the surrender. He told the swimmer who had brought the news to prepare for a quick return trip through the surrounding waters to the trapped Acre garrison. But the western Christian banners were going up along the walls. And the agreement was made in Saladin’s name.

Saladin cringed at the terms:

  • The city and everything in it including the ships in the harbor were surrendered to the Western Christian forces.
  • 200,000 dinars were to be paid.
  • The Muslims were to release 1500 undesignated prisoners and 100 specifically identified prisoners.
  • 10,000 dinars were to be paid to Conrad of Montferrat, and 4000 to Conrad’s associates.
  • The “True Cross” taken by Saladin’s forces at the Battle of Hattin in 1187 was also to be returned to the western Christians.
  • After the terms were met, Richard would release the 3000 Acre prisoners held by his forces.

Saladin knew these were extreme terms, potentially unfulfillable terms. The money was huge, and some of the requested prisoners were not even under Saladin’s control. But he would need to try to honor these terms. The extremity of the terms would create consequences that would lead to one of the most controversial actions of the “Third Crusade.”

With respect to those banners going up along the walls of Acre, one belonged to Leopold of Austria. He had his banner placed right next to those belonging to King Philip of France and King Richard. By Leopold’s logic, he was a representative of the German Western Empire. Richard had the banner torn down and thrown into the moat. By Richard’s logic, Leopold was a mere duke, offering little contribution to the victory achieved by the English and French kings. This action against Leopold’s banner would result in serious consequences to Richard a few years later when he tried to return from the “Third Crusade” through territory controlled by Leopold of Austria.

Previous 820th Anniversary Posts:

July 4th – The 820th Anniversary of the Launch of the “Third Crusade”

October 4th – Richard the Lionheart Sacks Messina

November 3rd – Queen Sibylla Dies

November 11th – Richard the Lionheart Signs a Treaty with King Tancred of Sicily

November 15th – Queen Isabella’s Marriage to Humphrey of Toron is Annulled

November 19th – Archbishop of Canterbury Dies

November 24th – Conrad of Montferrat Marries Queen Isabella

December 25th – Richard the Lionheart Feasts at Christmas

December 31st – Shipwreck at Acre; Muslim Defenders Lose Resupply

January 5th – A Wall Comes Down, Presenting an Opportunity

January 20th – Frederick of Swabia Dies; Leopold of Austria Becomes Top-Ranked German Royalty at Acre

February 2nd – A Playful “Joust” Gets Out of Hand in Sicily

February 13th – Saladin’s Forces Relieve the Garrison at Acre

March 3rd – Richard the Lionheart Settles the Alice Marriage Controversy—Sort Of

March 30th – Philip II Leaves Sicily; Berengeria Arrives

April 10th – Richard the Lionheart Leaves Sicily for “Outremer”

April 20th – Philip II of France Lands at Acre

April 22nd – Richard the Lionheart Lands at Rhodes After His Fleet Scatters

May 1st – Richard the Lionheart Leaves Rhodes to Rescue His Sister and Fiancée

May 8th – Richard the Lionheart and His Troops Storm Limassol

May 11th – Crusaders Opposed to Conrad Visit Richard the Lionheart on Cyprus

May 12th – Richard the Lionheart Marries Princess Berengeria

May 30th – Fighting Intensifies at Acre

June 5th – Richard Leaves Famagusta for the Eastern Mediterranean Coast/Saladin Moves his Camp

June 6th – Richard the Lionheart Refused Admittance to Tyre

June 8th – Richard the Lionheart Arrives at Acre

June 11th – Saladin’s Relief Ship Sinks

June 25th – Conrad of Montferrat Leaves Acre; Saladin’s Receives Reinforcements

To review a comprehensive catalog of historical fiction set during the medieval time period, go to http://www.medieval-novels.com:80/.

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“Third Crusade” 820th Anniversary Series: Frederick of Swabia Dies; Leopold of Austria Becomes Top-Ranked German Royalty at Acre January 20, 2011

Posted by rwf1954 in Acre, crusades, Frederick Duke of Swabia, Frederick of Swabia, history, Leopold of Austria, medieval period, Richard the Lionheart, the crusades, third crusade.
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(This post is the eleventh of what will be approximately seventy posts following 820th anniversary highlights of what history now calls the “third crusade.” My novel, The Swords of Faith, tells the story of this legendary clash between Richard the Lionheart and Saladin.)

*****

Before Richard the Lionheart and Philip of France started out on their journey to the Middle East, now commonly referred to as the Third Crusade, a huge army led by Frederick I “Barbarossa,” emperor of the Western Empire (also known as the “Holy Roman Empire”), leader of Germanic Christians, started out on May 11th, 1189 over land, also with the aim of retaking Jerusalem for Christianity.  But on June 10th, 1190, about a month before Richard and Philip began their journey, the emperor drowned at a river crossing in what today is southern Turkey. Frederick’s son, Frederick Duke of Swabia, took command of the formidable force, but the army disintegrated quickly as it moved east then south down the Mediterranean coast. Only a small portion of this army arrived in Acre early in October of 1190.  But Frederick, Duke of Swabia, son of the emperor, remained the ranking German Christian at Acre.

On January 20th of 1191, 820 years ago today, the Germans lost their leader, to the illness permeating the Christian camp, illness previously referred to as affecting the issue of the rivalry over who should reign as “King of Jerusalem.” Frederick’s death might seem to be a small issue, considering the reduced size of the German forces. And for the Third Crusade itself, this was arguably a small event. But for the future of Richard Lionheart, this was a huge event, starting a chain reaction of actions and consequences that would shape Richard the Lionheart’s ultimate fate.

Frederick’s death left Leopold of Austria as the ranking German royalty now present, who tried with limited success to rally the remaining German troops under his leadership. By all accounts, Leopold was an unimpressive man, a short pudgy man referred to as “the sponge” because of his love for drink. But he would fancy himself the ranking representative of the Empire. In a future 820th anniversary post, we will discover that Richard Lionheart would adopt the basic camp disrespect for Leopold, resulting in one of the more famous events of the Third Crusade, an event that would lead to some life-changing post-crusade adversity for Richard.

The death of Frederick, Duke of Swabia, on this date 820 years ago, started this chain of events in motion.

Previous 820th Anniversary Posts:

July 4th – The 820th Anniversary of the Launch of the “Third Crusade”

October 4th – Richard the Lionheart Sacks Messina

November 3rd – Queen Sibylla Dies

November 11th – Richard the Lionheart Signs a Treaty with King Tancred of Sicily

November 15th – Queen Isabella’s Marriage to Humphrey of Toron is Annulled

November 19th – Archbishop of Canterbury Dies

November 24th – Conrad of Montferrat Marries Queen Isabella

December 25th – Richard the Lionheart Feasts at Christmas

December 31st – Shipwreck at Acre; Muslim Defenders Lose Resupply

January 5th – A Wall Comes Down, Presenting an Opportunity

To review a comprehensive catalog of historical fiction set during the medieval time period, go to http://www.medieval-novels.com:80/.